Kashmir became a disputed territory. Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the Governments of British India and Maharaja, in which the Kashmir State including the inhabitants was settled at 7.5 Million Nanakshahi Currency, averaging at 1 coin per head. The Kashmiries were never a priority in this settlement. Consequently to this independence ACT 1947, British India was divided into two sovereign dominions “India and Pakistan”. Like other 560  states of British India, State of Jammu and Kashmir was to accede to either of the two dominions. This decision was based on the factors / principles of geographical proximity and communal interests. State of J&K should have acceded to Pakistan based on the stated principles and fully expressed wishes of the people of Jammu and Kashmir.

All J&K Muslims Conference, the overwhelming majority political party of the State at the time, adopted a Resolution on 19th July 1947 demanding state’s accession to Pakistan with unequivocal majority.

The public expression of accession to Pakistan was met by Dogra Army and Hindu armed groups by forced suppression. Looting and killings of Muslim population in a planned manner at a large scale ignited throughout the state. People went in to revolt against the Dogra regime, resulted in liberation of parts of J&K through armed struggle, however, with the support of tribesmen from KPK, they consolidated liberated territory as today’s Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Control of Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan was also taken over by scouts of the area by defeating Dogra forces. A revolutionary Government in the liberated part of the State was founded on 24th October 1947.

Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan

Raja Muhammad Haider Khan
Raja Muhammad Haider Khan

Sardar Muhammad Abdul-Qayyum Khan

Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan became the first President of Azad Government. Since October 1947, the Kashmir was divided in two parts of AJK and IHK with LoC, manned by the armies of Pakistan and India. As a result Kashmiries faced difficulties like:-

  • Separation of families.
  • Division of material resources and incestors’ properties.
  • LoC divided Kashmir, geographically, socially and culturally, affecting the people of Kashmir economically and adversely.
  • Kashmiries became victims of wars between India and Pakistan and it also affected the Kashmiries economically and socially.